Get COVID-19 Vaccination Sooner
March 22, 2021
There are presently four major types of COVID-19 vaccines in developmental stages, some of which have already been approved in various countries. They include:
Several risk factors are considered in the choice of vaccine selection. Some of these factors include the following:
These vaccine types are explicitly explained below.
Vector vaccines consist of viruses that are harmless to humans. These viruses are called vectors. The vectors are not capable of reproducing in humans, or only to a very limited extent. For the human immune system to mount a defense against the pathogen, it must come into contact with molecules (antigens) of the pathogen. This can be achieved in several ways.
Either a molecule from the viral envelope of the vector is exchanged for a molecule from the envelope of the pathogen, or the vector contains the information for the assembly of one or more protein molecules (antigens) of the pathogen. This information is read in the human cell, and the antigen of the pathogen is produced and presented to the immune system. Hence, the immune response desired in vaccination is triggered.
During these modifications of the vector, care is taken to ensure that it remains harmless to humans and the environment.
This new type of vaccine takes a different approach. It does not administer viruses or virus components, but only their genetic blueprints. These blueprints are hidden in the viral genome (DNA/RNA), which in the case of the coronavirus is present in a “mRNA strand". This is not infectious and therefore cannot cause COVID-19 disease.
If the mRNA, that is, the blueprint for SARS-CoV-2 virus components enters the human cell, it is read there. The cell then uses the blueprint to produce the (harmless) viral proteins itself, which the immune system recognizes as foreign and reacts to them by producing antibodies.
However, the mRNA is only read and is not integrated into the human genome, but is degraded by the body.
Several companies worldwide are working on the classical vaccination method against Corona with dead vaccines. Inactive "dead" Sars-CoV-2 viruses are used for this. They have previously been modified either through chemicals, heat, or radiation so that they can no longer reproduce. These inactivated viruses are recognized by the body as "foreign", which triggers its immune response, but no longer cause disease.
Live-attenuated vaccines contain pathogens that can still reproduce, i.e. are "viable", but whose pathogenic properties have been bred out. This is also referred to as attenuated pathogens. Examples are vaccines against mumps, shingles, measles, chickenpox, and rubella. The live-attenuated vaccine COVI-VAC from Codagenix is currently being tested in Phase I trials. This vaccine may not be suitable for immunocompromised individuals.
VIDEO: Learn more about the four types of COVID-19 vaccines and how they work!
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